In addition to loss, gain is also seen as a test of believers – whether they would still recognize that the gain originates only from God. A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer. In contrast to the New Testament, which was transmitted among a persecuted religious community and whose oldest extant versions are in a different language than the one Jesus used . According to Islamic sources before Caliph Uthman’s standardization, after which variants were burned, the Quran may have contained either 116 chapters (Ubayy Ibn Ka’ab’s codex) or 111 chapters (Ibn Ma’sud’s codex). After Uthman had the other codices destroyed there were still variations in the reading and the text of this Quran.
They are described as created to worship God and also to serve other specific duties such as communicating revelations from God, recording every person’s actions, and taking a person’s soul at the time of death. They are described as being created variously from ‘light’ (nūr) or ‘fire’ (nār). Islamic angels are often represented in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size or wearing heavenly articles. Common characteristics for angels are their missing needs for bodily desires, such as eating and drinking. Some of them, such as Gabriel and Michael, are mentioned by name in the Quran. Angels play a significant role in the literature about the Mi’raj, where Muhammad encounters several angels during his journey through the heavens.
The Quran recounts the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others. The earliest codices of the Quran found in the Umayyad period were most likely made in single volumes, which can be determined from the large fragments that have survived. Also during this time, the format of the codex went from being vertical to horizontal in the 8th century. Most of the fundamental reform to the manuscripts of the Quran took place under Abd al-Malik, the fifth Umayyad caliph (65/685–86/705).
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While Muhammad was alive, these revelations were written down by his companions, although the prime method of transmission was orally through memorization. The Quran is divided into 114 chapters which combined contain 6,236 verses (āyāt). The chronologically earlier chapters, revealed at Mecca, are concerned primarily with spiritual topics while the later Medinan chapters discuss more social and legal issues relevant to the Muslim community. Muslim jurists consult the hadith (‘accounts’), or the written record of Prophet Muhammad’s life, to both supplement the Quran and assist with its interpretation.
By 629 Muhammad was victorious in the nearly bloodless conquest of Mecca, and by the time of his death in 632 he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single religious polity. Muhammad’s closest companions, such as Abu Hureyrah, recorded and compiled what would constitute the hadith. The Islamic holy books are the records that Muslims believe various prophets received from God through revelations, called wahy. Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Muqla , an accomplished calligrapher from Baghdad, was also a prominent figure at this time. He became vizir to three Abbasid caliphs and is credited with developing the first script to obey strict proportional rules. Ibn Muqla’s system was used in the development and standardization of the Quranic script, and his calligraphic work became the standard way of writing the Quran.
Rashad Khalifa When they hear what was revealed to the messenger, you see their eyes flooding with tears as they recognize the truth therein, and they say, “Our Lord, we have believed, so count us among the witnesses. The International Open University does not support or fuel any conflict. Hence, submitted articles should be free from political thoughts or propaganda of writer’s preference of some group. The IOU stands for authentic Islamic teachings which should be reflected in the submitted article.
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Contact with industrialized nations brought Muslim populations to new areas through economic migration. Many Muslims migrated as indentured servants to the Caribbean, forming the largest Muslim populations by percentage in the Americas. Migration from Syria and Lebanon was the biggest contributor to the Muslim population in Latin America. The resulting urbanization and increase in trade in sub-Saharan Africa brought Muslims to settle in new areas and spread their faith, likely doubling its Muslim population between 1869 and 1914. Muslim immigrants began arriving largely from former colonies in several Western European nations since the 1960s, many as guest workers. The Ottoman Empire disintegrated after World War I and the Caliphate was abolished in 1924 by the first President of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as part of his secular reforms.
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